It is commonly called enteric or salient fever, very common communicable disease seen mostly in tropical, subtropical regions and unhygienic places.
Symptoms of the disease exposes in the patient within one or two weeks. It is an acute generalized infection transmitted by infected milk, food and organisms.
The organisms enter through alimentary canal and reach into the nodules of small intestine. An irritation of the walls of the gastro-intestinal tract is caused with the formation of ulcers produce fatal bacterimiasis.
The general symptoms include raise of fever, headache, chill, or shivering fever, and sweating which sometimes make confusion with malaria fever.
Also causes swelling of liver, spleen, nos. of WBC decreases, appears monocytes and toxic granules in the cytoplasm of neutrophils.
Increase in the nos. of the organisms in the blood stream localize into Peyer's patches (lymphoid tissue around small intestine) where tissue distraction can occur producing fatal hemorrhage in intestine.
Other symptoms seen in the patient include loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhoea, slow pulse, abdominal pain, body weak, loss of body weight, white patches on the tongue, red spots in the abdominal region, etc.
Typhoid is caused by bacteriun Salmonella sps. of typhoid group of family enterobacteriaceae. It was discovered by Eberth and Gaffke in 1884 AD. Common species of Salmonella are S. typhi, S. paratyphi, S. enteridis, S. typhimurium, etc.
Salmonella is gram negative bacillus looks short, plumb, rods, shaped; occurs in single or pair about 1 to 1-5 um in length.
In cultured infected blood shows long varient form and peritrichous flagellated form, the two forms can be seen in microscope to confirm salmonella, incubation period about 2 weeks.
Mode of Infection
Typhoid is high communicable infect very rapidly through contaminated food, water, milk, intestinal discharge of the patient, and insect like flies which help in transmission.
Preventive measures (Prophylaxis)
a. Live in most hygienic places is the best way to control disease.
b. Belongings of the patient if expose to direct sunlight for 4-6 hrs.
c. Treat the patient belongings by 5% phenol solution or 1:500 bichloride of mercury solution
d. Intake of sterlized food, milk, boiled water, etc.
e. Scientific dispose of patient excreta and wastes
f. Education, advertisement, etc. about impact of typhoid disease.
g. Keep the patient in isolation specially from children
h. TAB (dead typhoid, paratyphoid A and B) vaccination and removal of gall bladder (believed as typhoid reservoir), etc.
Treatment or Therapy
i. Patient high fever can be control by cold bath sponge, keep the patient in complete bed rest with only liquid diet
ii. Very common drugs such as Chloromycetin, amoxycilline, broad spectrum ciprofloxin with cetamol tablets can be given according to the advice of the physician. Drugs must be taken in complete dose otherwise have the chances of revive.
iii. I heavy ulceration can control by emergency surgery
By: Team Expertshttp://www.blogger.com/profile/[email protected]
Title: Why Typhoid is so dangerous ?
Sourced From: oplhealth.blogspot.com/feeds/4687920291299664472/comments/default
Published Date: Fri, 05 Mar 2021 11:08:00 +0000
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